Cardiology

Cardiology

Infective endocarditis

IE is characterized by infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It may be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic, depending on the time course of the infection. It is now more commonly classified according to the type of valve (native or prosthetic) and the aetiological agent (e.g. staphylococcal, streptococcal, enterococcal, fungal, culture negative, […]

Read More
Cardiology

Examination of the patient, cardiovascular system

General inspection Does the patient look well or ill? Are they lying flat? Are they cachectic (cardiac cachexia)? Is there evidence of a congenital syndrome associated with cardiac abnormalities such as Marfan’s syndrome or Down’s syndrome? Position Help the patient to adopt a comfortable position at 45° with the chest exposed. In women, cover the […]

Read More
Cardiology
Pharmacology

Drugs used in heart failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is the combined failure of both the left and right sides of the heart. The incidence of cardiac failure in the UK is between 1 and 5 per 1000 per year, and doubles for each decade of life after the age of 45. CCF occurs when the cardiac output does not meet […]

Read More