Day: September 24, 2018

Hematology

Anemia caused by ion deficiency

Anemia is a common problem worldwide, affecting as much as one-third of the world‘s population. It can be caused by decreased production or increased destruction of erythrocytes, or by blood loss. The causes of anemia worldwide will reflect local patterns of disease. In the UK the most common cause of anemia is iron deficiency. In […]

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Gastroenterology

What you need to know about crohn’s disease

Crohn’s diseasemay affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. It is most common in the terminal ileum and ascending colon. Crohn’s disease is more frequent in the Western world, particularly amongst Caucasians, where the prevalence is approximately 50–100 per 100 000. Its peak onset is between 20 and 40 years […]

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Gastroenterology

Gastric secretion and its cells

The stomach acts as a reservoir for food, releasing the gastric contents into the duodenum at a steady rate. Relaxation of the LOS and arrival of food in the stomach is followed by a receptive relaxation of the fundus and body of the stomach. This is mediated by a vagal reflex, which inhibits the smooth muscle […]

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Gastroenterology

Esophageal varices and mallory-weiss syndrome

Esophageal varices are dilated veins at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach. This is a site of a connection between the systemic and portal venous systems (portosystemic anastomosis). Normally, the connections are closed, but in patients with cirrhosis of the liver and portal hypertension the raised pressure in the portal system causes them to […]

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Cardiology

Examination of the patient, cardiovascular system

General inspection Does the patient look well or ill? Are they lying flat? Are they cachectic (cardiac cachexia)? Is there evidence of a congenital syndrome associated with cardiac abnormalities such as Marfan’s syndrome or Down’s syndrome? Position Help the patient to adopt a comfortable position at 45° with the chest exposed. In women, cover the […]

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