Day: September 23, 2018

Neurology

Common pathological features of central nervous system

Intracranial herniation is the movement of part of the brain from one space to another with resultant damage. It usually occurs following a critical increase in intracranial pressure caused by an expanding lesion, e.g. tumor or hematoma. However, it may be inadvertently precipitated by withdrawing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at lumbar puncture. Cerebral edema This is […]

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Respiratory Medicine

What you need to know about asthma and pathogenesis

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchiolar airways. It is characterized by recurrent reversible obstruction to airflow causing airflow limitation, airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation of the bronchi. Asthma may be allergic (extrinsic) or nonallergic (intrinsic). In asthma, smooth muscle that surrounds the bronchi is hyperresponsive to stimuli, and underlying inflammatory changes are present in […]

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Cardiology
Pharmacology

Drugs used in heart failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is the combined failure of both the left and right sides of the heart. The incidence of cardiac failure in the UK is between 1 and 5 per 1000 per year, and doubles for each decade of life after the age of 45. CCF occurs when the cardiac output does not meet […]

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Endocrine

What you need to know about Cushing’s syndrome

Cushing’s syndrome is a rare condition caused by a chronic excess of glucocorticoids. The disorder can be in the anterior pituitary gland or the adrenal cortex, or it may result from excess medication. It has a 5-year mortality of about 50% if it is not treated. Diagnosing excess cortisol is complicated by the circadian variation […]

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Endocrine

Anatomy of thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is butterfly-shaped and located inferior to the larynx and cricoids cartilage. It has two pyramidal shaped lateral lobes, approximately 5 cm in long, joined by the narrower isthmus anterior to the trachea. It is usually located over the second and third tracheal cartilages. The thyroid is attached to the trachea by the pretracheal […]

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Endocrine

Organization of endocrine system

The hypothalamus is an essential part of the endocrine system. It provides a link between the brain (central nervous system) and the rest of the body, allowing the brain to regulate body systems using hormones. The use of hormones to control peripheral organs and tissues allows a much wider range of effects compared to the […]

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Endocrine

Hormone and endocrine secretion

The body requires a constant environment for cellular activities to take place. This is achieved by homeostasis, which is the process by which internal systems of the body are maintained within optimum parameters despite variations in external conditions. Homeostasis in the human body is controlled by the endocrine system, which uses chemical messengers called hormones […]

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