Cardiology

Infective endocarditis

IE is characterized by infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It may be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic, depending on the time course of the infection. It is now more commonly classified according to the type of valve (native or prosthetic) and the aetiological agent (e.g. staphylococcal, streptococcal, enterococcal, fungal, culture negative, […]

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Medical knowledge

These foods give you allergy

Food allergies have become an important topic in recent years for a multitude of reasons. Their incidence has been on the rise, affecting 30% of adults and 40% of children. People can be allergic to just about anything but there are 8 allergens which are most common. When your body is exposed to an irritant […]

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Neurology

What’s parkinson’s disease and common clinical signs

Parkinson’s disease was first described by James Parkinson in 1817, who named it the ‘shaking palsy’. It is the most common of all the a kinetic–rigid syndromes with a prevalence of 170 per 100000 of population in the UK. It is more common in men than in women, and the average age at disease onset […]

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Neurology

What you need to know about headache

Headaches can be classified as either primary or secondary in nature. The most common primary headache syndrome is migraine. True tension headache and cluster headaches are uncommon. The diagnosis in these cases is made entirely from the history because there are no physical signs. Headache can also be secondary to other disorders affecting the head […]

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Rheumatology

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-infl ammatory disorder of synovial joints characterized by articular surface wear and formation of new bone (attempts at repair). It is also known as degenerative joint disease and characterized by joint pain, stiffness and swelling of joints. Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease, affecting up to 85% of the population at […]

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Hematology

Anemia caused by ion deficiency

Anemia is a common problem worldwide, affecting as much as one-third of the world‘s population. It can be caused by decreased production or increased destruction of erythrocytes, or by blood loss. The causes of anemia worldwide will reflect local patterns of disease. In the UK the most common cause of anemia is iron deficiency. In […]

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Gastroenterology

What you need to know about crohn’s disease

Crohn’s diseasemay affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. It is most common in the terminal ileum and ascending colon. Crohn’s disease is more frequent in the Western world, particularly amongst Caucasians, where the prevalence is approximately 50–100 per 100 000. Its peak onset is between 20 and 40 years […]

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Gastroenterology

Gastric secretion and its cells

The stomach acts as a reservoir for food, releasing the gastric contents into the duodenum at a steady rate. Relaxation of the LOS and arrival of food in the stomach is followed by a receptive relaxation of the fundus and body of the stomach. This is mediated by a vagal reflex, which inhibits the smooth muscle […]

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Gastroenterology

Esophageal varices and mallory-weiss syndrome

Esophageal varices are dilated veins at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach. This is a site of a connection between the systemic and portal venous systems (portosystemic anastomosis). Normally, the connections are closed, but in patients with cirrhosis of the liver and portal hypertension the raised pressure in the portal system causes them to […]

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Cardiology

Examination of the patient, cardiovascular system

General inspection Does the patient look well or ill? Are they lying flat? Are they cachectic (cardiac cachexia)? Is there evidence of a congenital syndrome associated with cardiac abnormalities such as Marfan’s syndrome or Down’s syndrome? Position Help the patient to adopt a comfortable position at 45° with the chest exposed. In women, cover the […]

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